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불교어학 불교 전문용어 한문 - 영어해설

  • : Duhka,  bittcrncss 豆佉 ; unhappiness. suffering, pain, distrcss, miscry; diffcidulty. Thcre are lists of three four, five eight, and tcn catcgorics; the two are intcrnal, i.e. physical and mcntal and external, i.c. attacks from without.  The four are birth, growing old illness and death, The eight are these four along with the pain of parting from the loved of meeting with the hated, of failure in one's aims, and that caused by the fine skand has; cf 四諦


  • 苦苦: Duhkha-duhkhata. The pain or painialncss of pain; pain prouduced by miscry or pain; suffering arising from external circumstances, c.g. faminc, storm, sickness forture, etc.


  • 苦行: Duskara-carya, undergoing diffculties, hardships, or sufferings; also Tapas, burning torment; hence asceticism rclisious austerity, martifotion.


  • 三昧: Ekagra, aikagrya, Undeflected concontraltion, meditation - on, one object, V 一行三昧


  • 一乘: Ekayana, One yana, the One yana the vhicle of one-ncss. 一佛乘  The one Buddha - Yana. The One vehiclc, i.e. Mahayana, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hinayana Mohayuanists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvana it is especially the doctrine of the 法華經   Lotus Scripture v. 大乘. 11之珠 The pearl of the one, Yana, i.c. The Lotus Scripture. 11圓宗The Tientai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehide; V. 天台宗.11. The one-vehide family or sect especially the Tien-tai or Lotus School. 11() The one-vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sutra. 究貫敎The One vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus sutra. 11; 11妙典(or ) Another name for the Lotus sutra so called because it deelares the one way of salvation the perfact Mahayana. 11菩提 The one-vehicle enlighten ment or 11華嚴 Avatamsaka Schod; v. 五敎


  • 一切: Sarva. All, the whole; 普遍,


  • 一切如來: Sarvatathagata, all Tathafatas, all the Buddhas.


  • 一切處: Samanta, Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyana, 無不相應眞言

       The shinon or "True word" that responds everywhere.


  • 一心: With the whole mind or heart; one mind or heart; also the bhutatathata, or the whole of thins; the universe as one mind or a spiritual unity, 稱名 With undivided mind to call on the name. 三惑; 同体 三惑 The then-t'a "three doubts" in the mind of a bodhisattva, proudcing fear of illusion, confusion through multipicity of duties, and ignorance i.e.. 見思; 無明 q.v. 三智 One mind and three aspects of knowledge the 別敎separates the three aspects into  and g.v; Tient'ai unifies them into , one immediate vision or regards the three as aspects of the one mind.


  • 一時: Ekasmin samaye [Pali;ckamsamayam];on one accasion, part of the usual opening phrase
  • of a sutra-Thus have I heard .Once, ctc. A period, e.g.a session of expounding a sutra.  入定: To enter meditation by tranguil lizing the bady, mouth, and mind.身口意           入寂:  To enter into rest,or nirvana;also,to die, Also 入滅 or 入寂滅


  • 八正道(): Aryamarga, The eight right or correct ways the "eightfold noble path for the arhat to nirvana; also styled. 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八遊行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道, The eight are : (1)正見 samyag-arsti,  correct views in regard to the Four Axioms and frecdom from the common delusion, (2)正思 samyak-samkal pa, eorrect thought and purpose (3)正言 samyag-vac, correct speach avoidance of false and idle talk
  • (4)正業 samyak-karmanta, correct dead, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity (5)正命 Samyag ajiva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations (6)正精進 Samyag-vjajama correct zeal or energy in uninterrupted progreee in the way of nirvana (7)正念 Samyak, smrti, correct remcm brance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false (8)正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, abscortion, or anbstraction.


  • 十二因緣: Dvadasang pratityasamutpada; the twelve nadanas; v, and also; 十二緣起; (); 率連; 棘園; ; ; 因緣觀; 支佛觀
  • They are the twelve links in the chain of existence; (1) vidya, ignorance, or unenlightment (2) Samskara action, activirty concotion, "dispositions, keith, (3) vijnana, consiousness (4)名色 namarupa name and form (5)六入 i.e. eye ear nose tonguc body, and mind (6) sparsa, contect touch (7) vedana, scnsation feeling (8) trsna thirst desire, craving (9) upadana laying hold of grasing (10) bhava baing existing (11) jati birth (12)老死 jaramarana dd age death.


  • 十信: The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten in the fifty two bodhisattva postions: (1) faith  (2) remembrance, or unforgetfulness (3)精進 zealous progress (4) wisdom (5) settled firm nessin concentration  (6)不退 non-retrogression (7)護法 protection of the Truth

(8)廻向reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Trugh

(9) the nirvana mind in

(10) action at will in anything and everywhere.


  • 十號: Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathag ata; 應供 Arhat 正徧知 Samyak-sambuddha
  • 明行足 Vidyacorana-sampanna  善逝 sugata, 世間解Lokavid, 無上士Anuttara
  • 調御丈夫Purusa-damya-sarathi, 天人師Sasta deva manusyanam
  • 佛世尊 lokamatha, or bhagalon
  • 三味: The three flavours or pleasant savours; the monastic life, reading the scriptures meditation
  • 三寶: Triratna, or Patnatraya, i.e. the Three precious Ones : Buddha Dharma Samgha
  • 三毒: The theree poisons also styled 三根; 三株 they are concupiscence or wrong desire, anger hatc or resentment and stupidity gnorance, unintclligence or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth


  • 三衣: The three regulation harments of a monk 袈裟 kasaya, 僧伽製, samhati assenably robe; uttarasanga, upper garment worn over the 安陀會Antarvasaka, vest or shirt


  • 大乘四果: The four fruits or bodhisattva stages in Mahayana the fouth being that of a Buddha: 須陀洹 srota-apnna 사다함 sakrdagamin 阿那含 anagamin and 阿羅漢arhan. This is a 通敎 category.


  • 大僧戒: The commands or prohibitions for bodhhisatvas and monks also styled.


  • 大導師: The great vuide, i.e. Buddha or a Bodhisattva.


  • 大悲: Mahakaruna "great pity" i.e. greatly pitiful a heart that seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas, especially to kuan-yin.


  • 大慈: Great mercy, or compassion.


  • 大比丘: Great bhinkyu, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to 大和尙


  • 大沙門: The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhilcsu in full orders.


  • 大法: The great Dharma, or Law.
  • 大弟子: sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also.


  • 大衆: The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody.


  • 大覺: The superme bodhi, or enlightenment and the enlightening power of a Buddha.


  • 女色: Female beacuty-is chain, a serious delusion a gievous calamity


  • 山僧: "Hill monk" self-deprecatory term used by monks.


  • 不妄語: Musavada-veramani,, the fourth commandmenmt thou shalt not lie ; no false speaking


  • 婬慾: Abrahamacarya-veramani, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery


  • 不放勉: No slackness or loosensess; concentration of mind and will on the good.


  • 不殺生: Pranatipatad vairamani, the first commandment, 
  • Thou shalt not kill the living.


  • 中道: The "mean" has various interpretions in general it denotes the mean betweeen taio extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism or eternal subgtantial existence ald annihilation between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminobgy of or   substance or noting or that which has form and is there are measurable and ponderable,.


  • 方便; Upaya, Convenient to the place or situation, suited to the condition opportune, appropriate; but  is interpreted as 方法 methood mode, I am, and 便 as 便用convenient for use, i.e. a convenient or expedient mathod; also 方正as 便 and as 巧妙which implies strategically correary.


  • 世世生生; Transmigration affter traansmigration in the six states of mortal existence


  • 世俗; Laukika; common or ordinary things custom, expcriences, common or wondly ways.


  • 世尊; Lokajyestha, words most venerable, or Lokantra, lord of worlds.


  • 世界; Loka世間 ; the finite world the world, a world, which is of two kinds;


  • 出家; Pravraj; to leave hoime and bewcome a monk or nun.


  • 布施; Dana 檀那; the sixth paramita almsgiving i.e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reinearnation, as neglect or refusal in the fo will produce the opposite consequences.


  • 末法; The last of the three periods , , and ; that of degeneration and extinction of the Buddha-law


  • 生佛; Buddha alive; a living Buddha; also i.e. 衆生 all the living and i.e. Buddha


  • 因果; Cause and effect every cause has its effect as every effect arises from a cause.


  • 因緣; Hetupratyaya, cause; causes; hetu, is primay cause pratayaya, secondary cause or causes, e.g. a seed is rain dew, farmer, etc, are


  • 色慾; Sexual desire, or passion


  • 色身; Rupa-kava. The physial body, as controsted with the 法身 dharma-kaya, the immaterial spiritual or immortal body.


  • 佛子; Son of Buddha; a bodhisattva; a believer in Buddhism for every beliver is becoming Buddha; a term also applied to all beings, becuase all are of Buddha-nature.


  • 佛性; Buddhata, The Buddha-nature i.e. gnosis enlightenment; potential bodhi remaing in every gati, i.e. all have the capacity for enlightenment; for the Buddha-nature remains in all as wheat nature remains in all wheat.


  • 佛敎; Buddhas teaching; Buddhism.


  • 佛法; Buddhadharma; the Dharma or Laq preached by the Buddha the principles unerlving these teaching the truth attained by him.


  • 佛眼; The eye of Buddha, the enlightened one who sees all and is omniscient


  • 佛語; The words, or seyings, of Buddha.


  • 佛身; Buddhakaya, a general term for the Trikaya or threefold embodiment of Buddha.


  • 佛陀; There are numberous monks from India and Central Asia bearing this as part of their names


  • 成佛; To become Buddha as a bodhisattva does on reaching super me perfect bodhi


  • 我想; The thought that the ago has reality.


  • 我慢; Abhimana, as ma-mada.


  • 我相; Egoism the concept of the ego as real


  • ; Sila, 新羅, precept command prohobition discipline rule; morelity


  • 戒律; Sila and Vinaya.  The rules


  • 法輪; Dharma-cakra, the wheel of the Law Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all apposition like lndras wheel and which rolls on from man to man place to place age to age.



  • 法雨; The rain of Buddha-truth which fertilizes all beings.



  • 修行; Carya, conduct to abserve and do to mend one's ways; to cultivate oneself in right practice; be religious or pious.


  • 般若; Prajna "to know, understand" "Wisdom" M.W Intp wisdom;智慧 understanding or wisdom; clear intelligent the sixth paramita.


  • 敎化; To transform by instruction; teach and convert; to cause another to give alms.


  • 敎理; The foundamental principles of a religion its doctrines or dogmas, e.g. the four trughs the twelve nidanas the eight tob noble path.


  • 欲心; A desirous, covetous, passionate or lusful heart.


  • 欲樂; The joy of the five desires


  • 惡口; Evil month, evil speech; a slanderous, evil-speaking person.


  • 惡業; Evil conduct in thought word or deed which leads to evil recompense; evil Karma.


  • 菩提; Bodhi ;  from budh; knowledge understanding perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightened mind; anciently intp.


  • 愛惑; The illusion of love, or desire


  • 愛憎; Love and hate, desire and dislike


  • 愛欲; Love and desire; love of family


  • ; Karman, karma :action work deed: "moral duty" "product, result, effect" M.W  The doctrine of the act; deads especially in  their relation to succeeding forms of transmigration.


  • 業報; Karma-reward; the retribution of karma, good or evil.


  • 頓悟; Sudden Illumination


  • 無念; No Thinking


  • 不生不滅; No birth and No Death
  • 如如; Suddness
  • 法堂; The Big Main Hall
  • 解脫門: The Gate of Nirvana
  • 掛佛; The Hanging-up painting of the Buddha
  • The palanduin
  • 大佛像; Wooden Buddhas I mage
  • 大雄殿; Main sanctuary. TaeungJon
  • 大雄殿佛像; Statue of vairocana Buddha Buddha I mage in the Main Hall


  • ; Vipasyanaj Vidarsana.
  • To look into study examine contemt ate; contemplation, insight; a study a Taoist monactery to consider illusion and discern illusion or discern the seeming from the real; to contemplate and mentally enter into truth.


  • 觀世音; Regards of the worlds sounds or cries the so-called Goddess of Mercy; also known as ,


  • 釋迦牟尼; Sakyamuni, the saint of the sakya tribe Muni is saint holy man, sage ascetic, monk; it is intp.
  • 釋迦; Sakya the clean or family of the Buddha, said to be derived from saka. vegetables but intp in chiness as powerful, strong and explained by powerful also erroneously by  charitable which belongs rather to association with sakyamuni.


  • 禪靜; Dhyana and its chiness translation duieting of thought or its control or suppression silent meditation Dhyama and Samadhi.


  • 覺性; The enlightened mind free from all illusion.


  • 覺者; An enlightened one especially a Buddha, enlightening self and others


  • 禪房; Meditation abode a room for meditation a cell a bermitage general name for a momastery.


  • 禪師; A master or teacher of meditation or of the chian school


  • 禪悅; Joy of the mystic trance


  • ; To level a  place for an atter to sacrifice to the hills and fountains to abdicate.


  • 應供; Worthy of worship atr of the term anhat; one of the ten titles of a Tathagata.


  • 諸法; Sarvadharma; Sarvabhava; all things; every dgarna law, thing method, etc


  • 僧俗; Monks and the laity
  • 緣起; Arising from conditional causation; everthing arises from conditions and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature;


  • 僧伽; Sangha, an assemble, collection
  • company, society.  The corporate assembly of at least three monks under a chairman empowered to hear confession, grant absolution and ordain


  • 解脫門; The door of release the stage of meditation charater ized by vacuity and absence of perception or wishes.


  • 煩惱; Klesa "pain affliction distress" " care, trouble"


  • ; Stupa; tope;
  • a tumulus or mound for the bones or remains of the dead or for other sacred relics, especially of the Buddha, whether relics of the body or the mind, e.g. bones or scriptures.


  • 菩提; Bodhi; from budh; knowledge, understanding; perfect wisdom; the illuminated or enlightemed mind; anciently intp


  • 敎理; The fundermental principles of a religionits doctrines or dogmas e,g. the four trughs the tweles nidanas the eight fold noble path


  • 梵鐘; A temple or monaster bell.


  • 十大弟子; The ten chief disciples of Sakyamuni, each of whom was master of one poser or gift.


  • 三處傳心; The three places where Sakyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kasyapa
  • 大乘起信論; Mahayana-sraddhotpada-sastra, attributed to Asvaghosa 마명(without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramartha A.D. 553 and Siksananda between 695-700 ; there are nineteen commentaries on it.  It is described as the foundation work of the Mahayana. Tr. into Enghlish by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith.


  • 布施; dana. charity or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others


  • 持戒; sila, keeping the commandments


  • 忍辱; ksanti, patience under insult


  • 精進; virya, seal and progress


  • 禪定; dhyana, meditation or contemplation


  • 智慧; prajana, wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth.
  • It is the last which carries across the samsara(sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana.  The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance, the 唯識論 adds four other paramitas.


  • ; perceptions: the theory of nine kinds of non-actvity


  • 三輪; or three soverrign powers for converyiong others are those of


  • 極樂; birth in the happy land of Amitabha by transformation through the Lotus.


  • 法身; the dharmakaya, or spiritual body, born or formed on a disciple's conversion.


  • 佛菩薩; the transformation of a buddha or bodhisattva, in any form at will, without gestation or intermediary conditions
  • Buddha-body.  A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other forms of appearances.


  • 十戒Siksapada.  The ten prohivitions(in Pali form)consist of five commanaments for the layman;

(1) not to destroy life 不殺生 panatipataveramani;

(2) not to steal 不偸盜adinnadanaver;

(3) not to commit adultery 婬慾 abrahmacaryaver;

(4) not to lie 不妄語 musavadaver;

(5) not to take intoxicating liquor 不飮酒suramereyyamajjapamadatthanaver.  eight special commandment for laymen consist of the preceding five plus;

(6) not eat food out of regulated hours 不非時食 vikala-bhojanaver;

(7)not to use farlands of perfume 不着香華鬘不香塗身 malagandha-vilepana-dharana-


(8) not to sleep on high or broad beds(chastity) 不坐臥高廣大牀 uccasayana-mahasayana.  The ten commnadments for the monk are the preceding eight plus;

(9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical perfcrmances, not to see or listen to sucb 不歌舞倡技不往觀聽 nacca-gita-vadita-visukadassanaver.

(10) to refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels 不得捉錢金銀寶物 jataruparajata-patiggahanaver.  Under the Mahayana these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new environment of the monk to the following : not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unchastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet, not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism.


  • 修行; accordant


  • 方便; universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others


  • 說法; powers of universal explication of the truth


  • 神通; universal superhuman powers


  • 供養諸佛; power of universal service of all Buddhas


  • 成就衆生; the perfection of all beings universally


  • 斷惑; universal cutting off of delusions


  • 十牛圖; The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then sceing its tracs, then seeing the ox, catching it feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, both dead, return whence they came, and enter the dust.


  • 十智; The ten forms of understanding. I Hinayana (1)世俗智 common understading (2) enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four truths in this life ; (3) ditto, applied to the two upper reaims 上二界; (4),(5),(6)(7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g.苦智 : (8)他心 understanding of the minds of others (9) the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10)無生 nirvana wisdom; v 26
  • Mahayana.  A Tathagata's ten powers of understanding or wisdom (1)三世 perfect understanding of past, present, and future (2) ditto of Buddha Law (3)法界無碍 unimpeded understaing of the whole Buddha-realm (4)法界無邊 unlimited or infinite ditto (5)充滿一切 of ubiquity (6)普照一切世間 of universal enlightenment (7)住持一切世界 of omnipotence or universal control (8)知一切衆生 of omniscience re all living beings (9)知一切法 of moniscience re the laws of universal salvation (10)知無邊諸佛 of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom v. 華嚴經 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings karma nassions and Buddhas.
  • 十惡 Dasakusala. Thje ten "not right" or evil things are killing. stealing. stealing. adultery. lying double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perveted views ; these produce the ten resultant evils (). Cf. 十善 ; 十戒


  • 十行; The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva. following on the 十信 and 十主 ; the two latter indicate personal development 自利 These ten lines of action are for the universal welfare of thers. 利他; They are joyful service; beneficial service never resenting with cut limit; never out of order ; appearing in any form at will unimpeded ; exalting the paramitas amongst all beings perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtur ; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.  Superior order, grade or class. 上生 ; 中生 ; 下生 The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, v. , and 九品. 蓮臺 The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as ; otus flowers on the pool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed into beings of the Pure Land.


  • 三世; The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來 or , , , past present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like a flowing stream, Also 未生, 已生,     後滅, or , , unborn, born, dead. The 華嚴經 Huna-yen sutra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future, i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. 三際. 三千佛 Also The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas-of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa the present , and the future 星宿. Their names are variously fiven in several sutras a complete list is in the 三千佛名經. 不可得 Everything past. present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting and cannot be held; v. . 了遠 A Buddha's pertect knowledge of past present and future. The Buddhas of the past present and future, i.e. Kasyapa, Sakyamuni, and Maitreya. 假實 The reality or otherwise of things or events past. present amd future. Some hinayana schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有 and the future 營有. Others take different views. all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhasa sastra 婆沙論 77, or 俱舍論 20. 實有法體恒有 The Sarvastivadah school maintains that as the three states (past present future) are real so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real. matter is eternal. Mind. or thought, past, present or future, is momentary always moving unreal and cannot be laid hold of. 成佛 idem. 三生. One of a Tathagata's ten kinds of wisdom. i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future. 無障  礙智戒 The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments.  past, present, and future.  Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒. 覺母 A name for Manjusri 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future. There are two difinitions : (1) The realms of matter, of 衆生 life and 智正覺 mind especially the Buddha's mind (2) The 五陰 psychological realm(mind) 衆生 realm of life and 國土or material realm.


  • 三乘; Triyana, the theree vehicles or conveyances which carry living beings across samsara or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvana.  The three are styled , and Some-times the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Sravaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple ; 緣覺 Pratyeka-buddha that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩 Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahayana, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. the three are also depicted as 三車 three wains. drawn by a goat a deer an ox.  The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-behicle. which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples capacity, the Lotus Sutra being the unifying complete and final exposition.  The three vehicles are differently explained by different exponents e.g.


  • 三劫; The theree asankyjeya kalpas the three countleas aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the 莊嚴, past the present , and the future 星宿 kalpas.  There are other groups. 三千佛 The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas.


  • 三昧; The three flavours, or pleasant savours, The monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation.


  • 三天; The trimurti-Siva. Visnu, and Brahma. 使 v. 三使. 四仙 v. 二天三仙 and 鳩摩羅Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrantha son of jnatr, i.e. pf tje Jnatr clan.


  • 三學; The "three studies' or yehicles of learning-discipline, meditation, wisdom ; (a) learning by the commandments or prohibitions so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth. body or mind i.e. word, deed or thought (b) by dhyana or quietist meditations (c) by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts.  Also the Tripitaka ; the being referred to the vinaya, the to the sutras, and the to the sastras.


  • 三寶; Triratna or Patnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones; Buddha, Dharma. Sangha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or order.


  • 三師七證; The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.


  • 三界; The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home the eight for the devout at home and the five for the ordinary laity.


  • 布施; Dana 檀那; The sixth paramita, almsgiving, i.e. of go or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and als hereafter in the forms of reinearnation, as neglect o refusal will produce the opposite consequences.


  • 本性; The spirit one possesses by nature; hence the Buddha-nature; the buddha-nature withing ; one's own nature.


  • 末寺; Subsidiary buildings of a monastery.


  • 末世; The Third and last period of Buddha-kalpa; the first is the first 500 years of correct doctrine, the second is the 1,000 years of semblance law, or approximation to the doctine, and the third a myriad years of itts decline and end.


  • 本質; Original substance the substance itself; any real object of the senses.


  • 定命; Samyagajiva, the fiffth of the 八正道, right livelihood, right life : 'asstaining from any of the fobidden modes of living."


  • 正定; Samyaksamadhi. right astractions or concentration so that the mind become vacant and recepttive the eighth of the 八正道: “right concentration, in the shape of the Four Meditations." Keith.


  • 正徧智; Samyaksambuddha 三藐三佛陀; omniscience, completely enlightened the universal knowledge of  a buddha. hence he is the ocean of omniscience. Also ; 等正覺


  • 正念; Samyaksmrti, right remembrance the seventh of the 八正道; “right mindfulness the looking on the body and the spirit in such a way as to remain ordent. self-possessed and minidful having overcome both hankering and dejection "Keith.


  • 正思惟; Samyaksamkalpa, right thought and intent, the second of the 八正道; “right aspiration towards renunciation. benevolence and kindness. "keith.


  • 正業; Samyakkarmanta. righ action purity of body avoiding all wrong, the fourth of the 八正道; “right action, abstaining from taking life, or what is not fiven or from carnal indulgence. "keith.


  • 正精進Samyagvyayama. right effort, zeal or progress. unitermitting perseverance, the sixth of the 八正道; “right effort to suppress the sising of evil states to eradicate those which have arisen to stimulate good states and to perfect those which have come into being. " Keith.


  • 正覺; Sambodhi, the wisdom or omniscience of a Buddha.


  • 正見; Samyagdrsti, right view, understading the four noble truths; the first of the 八正道: “knowledge of the four noble truths. "keith.


  • 正語; Samyagvak, right speech; the third of the 八正道; “abstaining from lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk. "Keith.


  • 正等覺; Samyagvuddhi, or-bbodhi ; the perfect universal wisdom of a buddha.


  • 生住異滅Birth stay change(or decay) death.


  • 生老病死; Birth, age, sickness, death, the 四苦 four afflictions that are the  lot of every man.  The five are the above four and misery, or suffering.


  • 行住坐臥; Walking, standing, sitting, lying-in every state


  • 行者; An abbot's attendant ; also acarin, performing the duties of disciple.


  • 佛像; Buddha's image or pratima.  There is a statement that in the fifth century A. D the images in China wre of Indian features. thich lips, high nose, long eyes, bull jaws. etc... but that after the T'ang the form became "more effeminate"


  • 佛第子; Disciples of Buddha, whether monks or laymen.


  • 佛智; Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, Buddha-wisdom, i,e, supreme.  universal gnosis. awareness or intelligence; sarvajnata omniscience.
  • 佛法; Buddhadharrma ; the Dharma or Law preached by the buddha the principles underlying these teachings, the truth attained by him. its embodiment in his being.
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